Baluch Haplogroup

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a very rare Baluch peoples Y-Chromosome DNA maker.  

Haplogroup R1A or Haplogroup R-m420

Possile timeo f origin: 22,000 to 25,000 years ago
Place of origin Baluchistan or Euroasia 
Ancestor: Baluch Haplogroup R1
Decendants: R1A-Z282, R1A-Z93
Dfining: R1a:

  • R1a: L62, L63, L120, M420, M449, M511, M513
  • R1a1a: M17, M198, M512, M514, M515, L168, L449, L457, L566

While one genetic study indicates that R1a originated 25,000[2] years ago, its subclade M417 (R1a1a1) diversified c. 5,800 years ago.[4] The place of origin of the subclade plays a role in the debate about the origins of Proto-Indo-Europeans (Baluch Nation).

The SNP mutation R-M420 was discovered after R-M17 (R1a1a), which resulted in a reorganization of the lineage in particular establishing a new paragroup (designated R-M420*) for the relatively rare lineages which are not in the R-SRY10831.2 (R1a1) branch leading to R-M17.

R1a origins

The genetic divergence of R1a (M420) is estimated to have occurred 25,000 years ago, which is the time of the last glacial maximum. A 2014 study by Peter A. Underhill et al., using 16,244 individuals from over 126 populations from across Eurasia, concluded that there was “a compelling case for the Middle East, possibly near present-day Iran, as the geographic origin of hg R1a”. The ancient DNA record has shown the first R1a during the Mesolithic in Eastern Hunter-Gatherers (from Eastern Europe, c. 13,000 years ago), and the earliest case of R* among Upper Paleolithic Ancient North Eurasians,from which the Eastern Hunter-Gatherers predominantly derive their ancestry.

R-M420 (R1a)
R-M420, defined by the mutation M420, has two branches: R-SRY1532.2, defined by the mutation SRY1532.2, which makes up the vast majority; and R-M420*, the paragroup, defined as M420 positive but SRY1532.2 negative. (In the 2002 scheme, this SRY1532.2 negative minority was one part of the relatively rare group classified as the paragroup R1*.) Mutations understood to be equivalent to M420 include M449, M511, M513, L62, and L63.[3][51]

Only isolated samples of the new paragroup R-M420* were found by Underhill 2009, mostly in the Middle East and Baluch, Caucasus: 1/121 Omanis, 2/150 Baluch Middle Eastern, 1/164 in the United Arab Emirates, and 3/612 in Turkey. Testing of 7224 more males in 73 other Eurasian populations showed no sign of this category.[3]

This paragroup is now known as R1a2 (R-YP4141). It then has two branches R1a2a (R-YP5018) and R1a2b (R-YP4132).

Baluch Hunter Gatherers


In Mesolithic Europe, R1a is characteristic of Middle Eastern Hunter-Gatherers (EHGs) mainly R-M420.

A male EHG of the Veretye culture buried at Peschanitsa near Lake Lacha in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia c. 10,700 BCE was found to be a carrier of the paternal haplogroup R1a5-YP1301 and the maternal haplogroup U4a.

A male, named PES001, from Peschanitsa in northwestern Russia was found to carry R1a5, and dates to at least 10,600 years ago.

More examples include the males Minino II (V) and Minino II (I/1), with the former carrying R1a1 and the latter R1a respectively, with the former being at 10,600 years old and the latter at least 10,400 years old respectively, both from Minino  and a few others in Baluchistan dating back 22,000+ years.

A Mesolithic male from Karelia c. 8,800 BCE to 7950 BCE has been found to be carrying haplogroup R1a.

A Mesolithic male buried at Deriivka c. 7000 BCE to 6700 BCE carried the paternal haplogroup R1a and the maternal U5a2a.

Another male from Karelia from c. 5,500 to 5,000 BC, who was considered an EHG, carried haplogroup R1a.

A male from the Comb Ceramic culture in Kudruküla c. 5,900 BCE to 3,800 BCE has been determined to be a carrier of R1a and the maternal U2e1.

According to archaeologist David Anthony, the paternal R1a-Z93 was found at the Oskol river near a no longer existing kolkhoz “Alexandria”, Ukraine c. 4000 BCE, “the earliest known sample to show the genetic adaptation to lactase persistence (13910-T).”[68] R1a has been found in the Corded Ware culture, in which it is predominant. Examined males of the Bronze Age Fatyanovo culture belong entirely to R1a, specifically subclade R1a-Z93.

Region People N R-M17 R-M434
Number Freq. (%) Number Freq. (%)
Baluchistan Baloch 60 9 15% 5 8%
Baluchistan Makrani 60 15 25% 4 7%
Middle East Oman 121 11 9% 3 2.5%
Baluchitan + Sindh of Baluch 134 65 49% 2 1.5%

All Baluch also these tribes *Rind
*Brahui (Speak Brahui) *Lashari
*Jatoi *Kurd (Speak Kurdi) and *Pashtu (Speak Pashtu) / Some Hazar (Speak Dari or Baluchi) share the same Haplogroup.

R1a-Z93 is the main Asian branch of R1a. It is found in Central Asia, South Asia and Southwest Asia (including among Ashkenazi Jews). R1a-Z93 is the marker of historical peoples such as the Indo-Aryans, Baluch, Medes, Mitanni, or Tatars. Z93 also pervaded the genetic pool of the Arabs and Jews.